Until the last quarter of the twentieth century, racially explicit policies of federal, state, and local governments defined where whites and African Americans should live. Today’s residential segregation in the North, South, Midwest, and West is not until the last quarter of the twentieth century, racially explicit policies of federal, state, and local governments defined where whites and African Americans should live.
Today’s residential segregation in the North, South, Midwest, and West is not the unintended consequence of individual choices and of otherwise well-meaning law or regulation but of unhidden public policy that explicitly segregated every metropolitan area in the United States. The policy was so systematic and forceful that its effects endure to the present time. Without our government’s purposeful imposition of racial segregation, the other causes—private prejudice, white flight, real estate steering, bank redlining, income differences, and self-segregation—still would have existed but with far less opportunity for expression.
When people think of segregation, they most often think of factors like private prejudice, white flight, real estate steering, bank redlining, income differences, and self-segregation — I'm interested to read more about the *government's* explicit policy contributions to segregation in this book.
...he found that it was possible to change the entire global climate simply by turning the symbiotic efficiency up or down. The amount of carbon dioxide or oxygen in the atmosphere and global temperatures all varied according to the efficiency of mycorrhizal exchange. Based on Field's data, mycorrhizal fungi would've made a substantial contribution to the dramatic drawdown of carbon dioxide that followed the plant boom in the Devonian period.
Fungi are deft rangers in this wilderness, and can forage in a way that plants can't. By hosting fungi within their roots, plants gain hugely improved access to these sources of nutrients. They too get fed. By partnering, plants gain a prosthetic fungus, and fungi gain a prosthetic plant. Both use each other to extend their reach.
A mycelial network is map of a fungus's recent history and is a helpful reminder that all lifeforms are in fact processes, not things. The "you" of five years ago was made of different stuff than the "you" of today. Nature is an event that never stops.
"I think there's lots we can learn as humans from mycelium. You can't just go and close a road to see how the traffic changes but you can sever a connection in the mycelial network."
Researchers have begun to use network-based organisms like slime molds and fungi to solve human problems. The researchers who modeled the Tokyo train network using slime molds are working to incorporate slime mold behavior into the design of urban transportation networks.
The resurgence of trufficulture is exciting because it is a way to produce a cash crop from a forested landscape, and a way to direct private capital into environmental restoration. To grow truffles, you have to grow trees. You have to acknowledge that
the soil is full of life. You can't cultivate truffles without thinking at the level of the ecosystem.
Sophie Alpert, a prominent React developer, bewilderedly reporting that she was offered $600 to open a pull request on a random open source project due to the visibility she would bring, prompting her to jokingly wonder aloud, "Is this what it feels like to be an influencer?"
I'm also a translator, and translation offers a natural metaphor for how I think about writing in general.
Every act of communication is a miracle of translation....
Who can say if the thoughts you have in your mind as you read these words are the same thoughts I had in my mind as I typed them? We are different, you and I, and the qualia of our consciousnesses are as divergent as two stars at the ends of the universe.
And yet, whatever has been lost in translation in the long journey of my thoughts through the maze of civilization to your mind, I think you do understand me, and you think you do understand me. Or minds managed to touch, if but briefly and imperfectly.
Does the thought not make the universe seem just a bit kinder, a bit brighter, a bit warmer and more human?
In 1800 New England farmers (seeding by hand, with ox-drawn wooden plows and brush harrows, sickles, and flails) needed 150-170 hours of labor to produce their wheat harvest. By 1900 in California, horse-drawn gang-plowing, spring-tooth harrowing, and combine harvesting could produce the same amount of wheat in less than nine hours. In 1800 New England farmers needed more than seven minutes to produce a kilogram of wheat, but less than half a minute was needed in California's Central Valley in 1900, roughly a 20-fold labor productivity gain in a century.
Only about 6 percent of tax returns of those with
income of more than $1 million are audited, along with 0.7 percent of business tax returns. Meanwhile, there is one group that the IRS scrutinizes rigorously: the working poor with incomes below $20,000 a year who receive the Earned Income Tax Cedit. More than one-third of all tax audits are focused on that group struggling to make ends meet, even as the agency cuts back on audits of the wealthy — while the top 5 percent of taxpayers account for more than half of underreported income. Overall, criminal prosecutions of tax cheats are now exceedingly rare, just one for every 385,oo0 households. Every dollar invested in the lRS for audits brings in $200 in new revenue
Only a tiny part of the incoming radiant energy, less than 0.05%, is transformned by photosynthesis into new stores of chemical energy in plants, providing the irreplaceable foundation for all higher life
A telling comment on the complexities of energy transformations - we understood how to release nuclear energy sooner (theoretically by the late 1930s, practically by 1943, when the first reactor began to operate) than we knew how photosynthesis works (its sequences were unraveled only during the 1950s).
How Not To DIE FROM HEART DISEASE
How Not TO DIE FROM LUNG DISEASES
How Not To DIE FROM BRAIN DISEASES
How Not To DIE FROM DIGESTIVE CANCERS
How Not To DIE FROM INFECTIONS
How NOT TO DIE FROM DIABETES
How Not To DIE FROM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
How Not To DIE FROM LIVER DISEASES
How Not To DIE FROM BLOOD CANCERS
How Not To DIE FROM KIDNEY DISEASE
How Not To DIE FROM BREAST CANCER
How Not To DIE FROM SUICIDAL DEPRESSION
How Not To DIE FROM PROSTATE CANCER
How Not To DIE FROM PARKINSON'S DISEASE
How Not To DIE FROM IATROGENIC